Month: September 2017

Drug Resistant Gonorrhea! What you need to know

Drug Resistant Gonorrhea! What you need to know

Is Gonorrhoea common


According to WHO, more than one million people around the world acquire STIs daily. There are several sexually transmitted infections (STDs) that affect both men and women. Gonorrhea is one such example of STI.

What causes gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrheae bacteria.  This bacteria attacks and lives in the mucous membranes in our bodies. These are the moist soft tissues that are not covered by the outer layer of dead skin cells. When infected, the disease causing bacteria is thus found in the uterus, cervix, vagina, Fallopian tubes, rectum, and urethra. It is also found in the lining of the eyelids, the mouth and the throat.

How gonorrhea is transmitted

Gonorrhea is transmitted through sex, be it anal, oral or vaginal sex with an infected person. The transmission is spread through sexual fluids like semen and vaginal fluids and it is prudent to note that it is not necessarily dependent on ejaculation. Other than the genitals, anus and urethra, the disease can infect the eyes, mouth and the throat.

When engaging in oral sex, one is exposed to contracting gonorrhea if the partner is infested with the bacteria. This applies either way: giving oral sex to an infected partner, you get infected through their genitalia; receiving oral sex, infected mouth and throat will also lead to a gonorrhea infection. If expectant, you should also seek treatment if infected as you can pass it to your baby during birth. The disease is transmitted during birth is common for the baby to have eye and blood infections and it begins 2 to 4 days after birth. This normally results in the redness of the babies eyes, swelling of the eyes, and pus in the eyes.

Where I cannot get gonorrhea

Fluids are not required to transmit the bacteria causing gonorrhea, therefore, it is not possible to get the STI through casual contact like holding hands, hugging, sharing food and sitting on a toilet.

What increases my likelihood of getting gonorrhea

Engaging with several sex partners will make you exposed to infected partners. Having sex without using protection is a way that exposes you to the disease. You should use condoms when having sex as that protects you from STIs and also HIV/AIDS. Youths below 24 years are also highly exposed to gonorrhea as they have a tendency of having unprotected more times compared to other age groups. This group of individuals are also less likely to go for testing. The way you are likely to get this disease is if you have a previous diagnosis of a STI as this increases the susceptibility of your body to contracting another STI and HIV/AIDS.

What are the signs that am having gonorrhea

There are differences in how gonorrhea manifests in men and in women though there are some common symptoms for both sexes. A burning sensation when urinating can be a sign of an infection. Abnormal discharges in the vagina and penis is the other common sign of an infection in either sex though this is common with other STIs and is recommendable that you get tested.

In women, painful periods, pain during sex, fever, bleeding between periods and abdominal pain are also signs of a gonorrhea infection.

How do I treat gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is treated the same be it an infection in the mouth, throat eyes or the genitals. The most common treatment is a regimen of antibiotics, mostly oral. The most recommended antibiotics are cefixime, doxycycline and ceftriaxone.

The infection should clear after a week or two.

Gonorrhea is curable by taking appropriate medication as directed. Nonetheless, repeat infections of the STI are common.

It is recommended that you and your partner restrain from sex until the treatment is over and you should wait for at least one week after completing the medication before having sex with your partner again.

What complications am I likely to have if I don’t treat gonorrhea

Gonorrhea sometimes has no symptoms. Stigma and lack of access to medication are all reasons why you might not go for medication. Untreated this disease creates serious health problems. In women, it can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which can result in permanent damage to your reproductive system, ectopic pregnancy, premature births or infertility.

Being infected with

Engaging with several sex partners will make you exposed to infected partners. Having sex without using protection is a way that exposes you to Gonorrhea. You should use condoms when having sex as that protects you from STIs and also HIV/AIDS. Youths below 24 years are also highly exposed to gonorrhea as they have a tendency of having unprotected more times compared to other age groups. This group of individuals are also less likely to go for testing. The way you are likely to get gonorrhea is if you have a previous diagnosis of a STI as this increases the susceptibility of your body to contracting another STI and HIV/AIDS.

Engaging with several sex partners will make you exposed to infected partners. Having sex without using protection is a way that exposes you to Gonorrhea. You should use condoms when having sex as that protects you from STIs and also HIV/AIDS. Youths below 24 years are also highly exposed to gonorrhea as they have a tendency of having unprotected more times compared to other age groups. This group of individuals are also less likely to go for testing. The way you are likely to get this disease is if you have a previous diagnosis of a STI as this increases the susceptibility of your body to contracting another STI and HIV/AIDS.

What complications am I likely to have if I don’t get treated?

before does not make one safe even if it was treated as they can still contract the STI.

Why has gonorrhea become resistant to antibiotics

You should finish your prescription of antibiotics as failure to finish the dose allows the bacteria causing gonorrhea to mutate and be resistant to antibiotics. The rapid changing of the Neisseria gonorrheae has creates a worldwide public health issue. The WHO has thus come up with a program that surveys and informs on the treatment guidelines for antibiotic resistant gonorrhea .

Too Many Guys Are Relying On The Pull Out Method, So Make Sure Your Guy Wraps It Up

Too Many Guys Are Relying On The Pull Out Method, So Make Sure Your Guy Wraps It Up

Ah, the pull out method, also known as the form of contraception that frat dude you used to hook up with in college used to try to convince you to do in lieu of condoms because those just “don’t feel good.”

If you haven’t hooked up with said dude and haven’t heard of it, the method is pretty self-explanatory. It’s when the dude pulls out before ejaculating during penetrative intercourse, as a way to prevent pregnancy, and it’s growing more and more in popularity. But have you ever wondered to yourself, “Should I use the pull out method?” Well, the simple answer is no, you probably shouldn’t.

But that isn’t stopping people from giving it a shot. In addition to a study released earlier this year, which found teens have been relying on the pull out method more than ever, a newer study found single adult men are also relying pretty heavily on the less-than-reliable form of contraception. The present study, which surveyed 3,700 sexually active unmarried dudes, found that the number of unmarried American men who rely on the pull out method has almost doubled in the 13 years between 2002 and 2015.

Are you more of a hard numbers person? Let me run some by you. In 2002, only a mere 10 percent of unmarried men relied on the pull out method. That’s nothing when it comes to the whopping 19 percent who admitted to doing the same in 2015. Yep, for all you numbers people out there, that’s just one percentage shy of DOUBLE the men using the pull out method.

The study, published by the National Center for Health Statistics, found that overall use of male contraceptives has been increasing. So, that is some good news. But there’s a catch: While other forms of contraception, like condoms and vasectomy rates, have remained the same, the withdrawal method has still increased.

Of course, the increase in the other more reliable forms of male contraception is a step in the right direction in that these men are making an effort to practice safe sex. And of course, practicing the pull out method is better than completely foregoing any sort of contraceptive method whatsoever. Still, the pull out method is definitely not the most effective contraceptive choice.

In addition to having no way to protect you against STDs, the pull out method also leaves a lot of room for error. In fact, according to Planned Parenthood, 27 out of 100 women who use the pull out method get pregnant every year. That’s more than a quarter of women.

So, if there’s anything to remember from this information, it’s to use a condom. Please. I BEG YOU.

Check out the “Best of Elite Daily” stream in the Bustle App for more stories just like this!

Subscribe to Elite Daily’s official newsletter, The Edge, for more stories you don’t want to miss.


6 in 10 of America’s Single Guys’ Take Responsibility’ for Contraception

6 in 10 of America’s Single Guys’ Take Responsibility’ for Contraception

From the HealthDay Reporter

About six in 10 sexually active single men in the United States are taking responsibility for birth control, government health officials say.

When they have sex, these unmarried males are using a condom (45 percent), vasectomy, “withdrawal,” or a combination, according to a new report released Thursday from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

For the study, the researchers surveyed about 3,700 unmarried and sexually active men, aged 15 to 44.

The researchers found that use of any male birth control method rose from about 52 percent in 2002 to more than 59 percent by 2011-2015.

Male-method contraception was highest (75 percent) among men who had never married, followed by formerly married men (55 percent) and men currently living with their partner (36 percent), said study lead author Kimberly Daniels.

Daniels is a statistician with the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

The proportion of guys relying on condoms or vasectomy hasn’t changed since 2002, but use of withdrawal before ejaculation has, Daniels said.

Reliance on pulling out nearly doubled, rising from about 10 percent in 2002 to nearly 19 percent in 2011-2015, the study found.

Asked whether the CDC considers withdrawal a reliable form of contraception, Daniels said it is among the rubric of male methods. Yet as a family-planning tool, the CDC ranks withdrawal relatively poorly, more or less on par with condom use, and far below the effectiveness of the birth control pill for women.

Dr. J. Dennis Fortenberry, chief of adolescent medicine at Indiana University School of Medicine, said a “variety of things likely contribute to relatively high levels of [male contraceptive] use.”

Among them, he said, are comprehensive sex education programs, increased emphasis on communication with sexual partners, emphasis on men’s responsibility for contraception, and access to reproductive health services through means such as the Affordable Care Act (also known as Obamacare).

“The data speak against any return to abstinence-only education for younger men, or creation of access barriers to sexual and reproductive health for all people,” Fortenberry added.


Here’s How Oral Sex Can Give You Cancer

Here’s How Oral Sex Can Give You Cancer

Here’s How Oral Sex Can Give You Cancer

You know the benefits of oral sex: It builds intimacy, helps her orgasm, and feels fantastic. In fact, we doubt any of the 85 percent of adults who have had oral sex at least once with their partner would argue that it’s not pretty damn awesome.

But that doesn’t mean oral sex is risk-free. In fact, it’s one of the most common ways to spread sexually transmitted diseases, like chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, and human papillomavirus (HPV), according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

And depending on the strain you’re infected with, HPV can raise your risk of cancer—specifically of your oropharynx, or the middle part of your throat.

In fact, the number of people diagnosed with HPV-linked throat cancer is growing: Researchers found the presence of HPV in 21 percent of patients with oropharyngeal cancer before 1990. After 2000, 65 percent of sampled patients showed HPV, according to a meta-analysis published in Chemical Research in Toxicology.

“We’re just seeing the tip of the iceberg of this problem, and it’s really a public health crisis,” explains Ted Teknos, M.D., chairman for the Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery at Ohio State University’s Wexner Medical Center. He says that cases of HPV-related throat cancers have risen 300 percent from the 1980s to the 2000s.

“We’re just seeing the effects now, but it’s going to be much more common in the coming years and decades,” he adds.

Here’s everything you need to know about how oral sex can raise your risk for throat cancer—and exactly what you can do to protect yourself from it.

Throat cancer, officially known as oropharyngeal cancer, is more than twice as common in men than women, according to the American Cancer Society. It specifically affects your tonsils and the base, or the very back, of your tongue, says Dr. Teknos.

Throat cancer is different from oral cancer, which occurs in your lips, gums, tongue, linings of your cheek, or the roof or floor of your mouth. Throat cancer and oral cancer share some common causes—think smoking or chewing tobacco—but HPV is not one of them. Certain HPV strains are linked to throat cancer, not to oral cancer, he explains.

About 70 percent of oropharyngeal cancers are caused by HPV, says the National Cancer Institute. So what’s going on?

HPV is a shockingly common STD. Between 2013 and 2014, 45 percent of men aged 18 to 59 carried some form of HPV, according to the most recent CDC data. It’s so common that if you’re sexually active, you’ll probably contract it at some point in your life.

But that definitely doesn’t mean everyone who does will go on to develop the cancer. That’s because in the vast majority of the cases, your body will fight it off, clearing it from your system within 1 to 2 years.

There are more than 40 types of HPV that can infect you, though. And some strains are more serious than others. Doctors call them “high risk” strains, and researchers found that of the men who tested positive for genital HPV, 25 percent carried at least one of them. The type most commonly linked to throat cancer is called HPV 16.

Research shows that nearly 7 percent of Americans have oral HPV, but only 1 percent carries that cancer-causing type, according to the CDC.

If you’re unlucky enough to harbor a cancer-causing strain, proteins that are coded by the virus can attack your cells and cause them to grow out of control. At the same time, it messes with cell suicide—a scary-sounding process that’s actually completely normal, and stops cells from multiplying unchecked if there’s a problem there, explains Dr. Teknos. As a result, cancerous cells can begin to increase rapidly, causing the formation of the HPV-positive tumor.

It wasn’t until recently that doctors and researchers made the link between HPV and throat cancer. Decades ago, the vast majority of throat cancers were caused by smoking—and the cancers were notoriously difficult to treat.

But from the early ‘80s to ‘90s, hospitals started seeing patients who had never smoked developing cancer in their tonsils, and their cancers were a lot easier to cure than the smokers’ cancer were.

“That’s when people knew something was different,” says Dr. Teknos.

Zeroing in on the sexual revolution of the 60s, they landed on HPV as the likely culprit. The STD can be passed by giving and receiving oral sex, and even by open mouth kissing alone. If your throat is infected with it, and you go down on your partner, you can transmit it to him or her, and vice versa.

Once it’s in your throat, it can lay dormant for decades—that’s why doctors are just now seeing an uptick in oral sex-related cancer diagnoses.

Scary thing is, HPV-linked throat cancer is virtually symptomless at its early stages.

The telltale sign, which usually appears only when it’s progressed to a more advanced stage? A painless lump in your neck. “It’s usually right where you get swollen glands from tonsillitis, the upper part of the neck right next to your voice box region,” explains Dr. Teknos.

Most guys will feel it while they’re shaving and mistake it for an infection—and if you rock a beard, you might not even notice it at all.

Other symptoms include trouble swallowing, subtle changes to your voice, and a mild sore throat that can persist and became more painful over time, but these are typically more pronounced in people with smoking-related throat cancer.

Most people catch HPV during their sexually robust college years, explains Dr. Teknos. In fact, about 10 percent of students on campuses have cancer-causing HPV in their mouths at any given time, he says.

Again, that doesn’t mean all those people will go on to get the cancer: In most cases, your body will clear the infection within two years (During that time, though, you’d still be able to pass it on to your partners).

The best way to dodge it is to play the preventive game. Get the HPV vaccine to protect yourself from the cancer-causing strains. If you’re 26 or younger, insurance will cover the vaccine. If you didn’t get it when you were a kid, you can still get the vaccine as an adult if you meet certain criteria, per the CDC’s recommendations. (Here’s exactly how you can prevent HPV.)

“There’s only about 1 percent of cancers that have been identified due to strains that may or may not be included in the vaccine, so it’s 99 percent preventable with vaccination—but the key is, you need to vaccinate yourself before you’re exposed,” says Dr. Teknos.

If you’re well over the vaccine age limit and don’t meet the other criteria, you can help keep yourself safe by limiting your number of sexual partners. Research shows your risk skyrockets once you’re sexually involved with six or more people, explains Dr. Teknos. Utilizing condoms and dental dams correctly can also lower your risk.

Sex Ed: Condoms:

This is a modal window.

Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window.

End of dialog window.

There’s not much you can do to minimize your risk once you’ve been diagnosed with HPV. Think of it this way: People who smoke a lot and drink heavily are at a 40 times higher risk of developing throat cancer malignancies than people who don’t.

That risk is 55 times higher for someone with HPV, says Dr. Teknos.

But if you do get the cancer from your HPV infection, there’s more than a 90 percent chance that you’ll successfully be cured of it, he says. Like with all cancers, earlier detection can improve your changes of survival, so if you notice any of the symptoms listed above—especially if you’ve been diagnosed with HPV—loop in your doctor as soon as possible.


More Women… and Men… Injuring Themselves During Pubic Hair Removal

More Women… and Men… Injuring Themselves During Pubic Hair Removal

More Women… and Men… Injuring Themselves During Pubic Hair Removal

pubic hair removal

Grooming your pubic hair can be harmful to your health.

In fact, about one-quarter of all people who go bare “down there” are injuring themselves.

And an increasing number are men.

That’s according to a recent study published in JAMA Dermatology.

Experts say the motives behind this trend include more social pressure to wax, shave, or laser off body hair.

Indeed, 76 percent of the JAMA survey’s 7,456 overall respondents said they groom their pubic hair.

Of these, 85 percent were women and 66 percent were men. The average age for groomers was 43.

Researchers said 1,430 of the respondents reported grooming-related injuries. That’s about 25 percent of the 5,674 who groom their pubic hair.

“The biggest surprise was the prevalence of this practice,” Dr. Matthew Truesdale, a urologist in Florida, who worked on the study, told Healthline. “But people don’t talk about it.”

Small cuts feed infection

The study was launched after Dr. Benjamin Breyer, a study co-author from the University of California, San Francisco, began to see more people going to the emergency room for pubic hair grooming emergencies.

“We wanted to understand what’s going on in America,” Truesdale said. “And to drill down into the findings.”

The findings were that men and women were most apt to nick themselves while shaving. That was followed by injuries related to burning.

Hairier men were most at risk, along with men who groomed more frequently or removed all pubic hair many times.

Nearly one-third of the groomers had hurt themselves at least five times.

For men, the scrotum was most frequently injured.

“It’s not surprising,” said Truesdale, “since it’s the most difficult area to groom.”

The penis and pubis were also likely targets.

Women were more likely to burn themselves from waxing than men. Their injuries were most likely to the pubis or inner thigh.

However, serious injuries are rare. Only 1.4 percent of the groomers needed to go to a doctor.

The biggest risk in getting nicked while shaving is that small cuts can let in bacteria.

“Razors can make incisions in the skin,” Truesdale said. “They put people more at risk for infection.”

That’s not all.

Researchers at UC San Francisco found a link between more frequent grooming and sexually transmitted diseases such as herpes or syphilis, according to study published in December in the journal Sexually Transmitted Infections.

Better shaving methods help

Truesdale and other researchers’ goal is to help create guidelines for safe pubic hair removal.

Part of the current problem, explained Truesdale, is there aren’t many products aimed at pubic hair grooming. For now, removing less hair can be self-protective.

He also worries that if people do nick or burn themselves, healthcare visits may be delayed because of embarrassment.

“So if there’s a previous injury, it’s worth talking to a doctor,” he said.

Dr. Michele Green, a dermatologist in New York, has also seen the worrisome trend of more pubic hair removal injuries in the past few years.

But, she added, there are good ways to prevent injuries.

Knowing how to properly shave helps. Before shaving, Green advises using warm water and shaving cream. Afterward, apply soothing aloe.

“People just shave dry areas,” she said.

That can create those small tears in the skin.

Green also advised not plucking or picking hairs.

For men, laser hair removal, which is permanent, is also a good solution.

“But go to a board-certified dermatologist,” Green said, “because there are different lasers for different skin types.”

For women, leaving wax on too long can cause burns.

“Some places don’t have the proper waxing experience,” she explained, and may leave the wax on too long. She also recommended going to professionals.

According to the JAMA study, though, waxing is still a lower risk than shaving.

“Women who waxed had lower risk of lifetime injuries,” said Truesdale. “It’s a safer practice.”


Sexually transmitted disease without symptoms? Everything you need to know about it

Sexually transmitted disease without symptoms? Everything you need to know about it

It has no apparent signs until much later in its development

With no outward symptoms in the early stage, chlamydia remains one of the most common sexually transmitted STDs. This is because it is passed on to partners unknowingly through unprotected vaginal, anal or oral sex. This silent killer can lead to serious or permanent damage to a woman’s reproductive system.

If the infection remains untreated, it can spread to the uterus and fallopian tubes causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which can cause permanent damage. This can lead to long-term pelvic paininfertility and ectopic pregnancy which is a life threatening condition.


  • SYMPTOMS:Chlamydia is caused by a bacterium called chlamydia trachomatis that is spread through incidental contact, sexually or orally.
  • Affecting both sexes, women can get chlamydia in the cervix, rectum or throat while men can get chlamydia in the urethra (inside the penis), rectum or throat as well.
  • Newborn babies can acquire chlamydia from an infected mother during childbirth and while it may not be common, one can get the infection in the eye through oral or genital contact with the eyes.
  • Those at the highest risk of infection are sexually active young adults especially women under the age of 25, women with multiple partners and gay men.
  • According to, infection rates are highest among younger women partly because their immature cervical cells are more vulnerable to infection.
  • One of the most common myths about chlamydia is that it cannot be cured. Not so. Antibiotics can be used to rid the body of this infection.

With no apparent signs until much later in its development, the following symptoms may become noticeable weeks after infection.

Men experience small amounts of clear or cloudy discharge from the tip of the penis, painful urination, burning and itching around the opening of the penis and albeit less common, pain and swelling in one or both testicles.

Women on the other hand experience abnormal vaginal discharge that may have an odor, bleeding between periods, painful periods, abdominal pain with fever, pain when having sex (dyspareunia), itching or burning in or around the vagina and pain when urinating. In some instances, the infection may spread to the fallopian tubes causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). The symptoms of PID include fever, severe pelvic pain, nausea and abnormal vaginal bleeding between periods.

When a person is infected in the anus, the main symptoms are discharge, pain and bleeding from that part of the body.

For those who may have contracted chlamydia orally, one may notice a sore throat, cough or fever.


Doctors use lab tests to determine whether one is infected or not. They may ask you for a urine sample to check for the presence of the bacteria or a vaginal swab in women, and at times a sample from the urethra in men. If one is suspected to have an infection in the throat, that is swabbed too.


Depending on the severity, the doctor will prescribe the recommended dosage of antibiotics which must be followed to the tee and one should refrain from sexual activity to avoid reinfection.

But good news is, the infection should clear up in about a week or so after treatment.

However, women with severe chlamydia may be put on pain medicine and intravenous antibiotics (medicine given through a vein).

Once treatment has commenced it is advisable to be re-tested after three months to be sure the infection is cured.


Risky behaviour and porn fuelling rise of STDs among teens?

Risky behaviour and porn fuelling rise of STDs among teens?

Risky behaviour and porn fuelling rise of STDs among teens?

Middle-class children typically view porn by the age of 12 and engage in their first sexual activity the following year, according to a study.

It found that the younger they began viewing sexually explicit images, the earlier they went on to engage in sexual activity.

Young women who regularly watched more porn than average were more likely to have higher numbers of sexual partners.

The research was carried out mainly on middle-class students from the University of Buckingham. A total of 42 women and 31 men aged 18 to 25 answered a questionnaire on their porn-viewing habits and sexual behaviour in the previous six months.

The study found that on average, those who had started viewing sexual imagery from the age of 12 onwards had their first sexual encounters the following year.

Sexually risky behaviour – including having multiple sexual partners and sex at a young age – is thought to be fuelling a rise in sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers and young adults aged 15 to 24.

The material used in the study included films, TV or pictures depicting actual or simulated pornographic scenes or nudity, as well as explicit adverts and music videos. Sexual activity was defined as including kissing and foreplay but stopping short of intercourse.

The youngest a respondent reported first looking at pornography was six.

The researchers said the age at which participants were first exposed to sexually explicit material predicted how likely they were to engage in sexual behaviour at a younger age for both men and women.

While women who actively sought out pornography had higher numbers of sexual partners, those who viewed sex scenes incidentally – such as in a TV show, film or music video – were not found to be more prone to risky sexual behaviour such as engaging in one-night stands or not using contraception.

Full intercourse happened on average by the age of 16 in the sample, although one respondent reported first having sex at 13.

As adults, the respondents had on average 12 sexual partners, with the highest number reported being 60. One respondent admitted having 48 one-night stands.

Watching porn frequently was not found to lead to a higher number of sexual partners for adult men.

The authors said that the age at exposure was a more significant factor than the quantity viewed in adulthood.

Elysia Walker and Dr Emily Doe, from the University of Buckingham, presented their findings yesterday at the annual conference of the British Psychological Society’s Division of Health Psychology.

Miss Walker said “this was a very middle-class sample”, adding that further research was necessary to see whether there was a similar link in different social classes.


HIV PrEP for adolescent men found to be safe, effective

HIV PrEP for adolescent men found to be safe, effective

HIV PrEP for adolescent men found to be safe, effective

(UPI) — A recent study found the use of preexposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, for the prevention of HIV in adolescent, sexually active men is safe and effective.

The study, published today in JAMA Pediatrics, tested the safety and efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, or TDF/FTC, in adolescents for HIV PrEP, which was approved for use in adults by the FDA in 2012.

“PrEP is used to prevent HIV by using a pill that is normally used to treat HIV,” Dr. Sybil Hosek, a clinical psychologist at the Cook County Health & Hospitals System’s Stroger Hospital in Chicago, told UPI. “It’s a pill we’ve actually been using in HIV treatment for decades in adults with HIV. The most common side effects include start up syndrome where 10 percent of patients experience nausea and upset stomach when they start the PrEP. It’s a really safe medication.”

TDF/FTC has been approved for use for treatment of HIV in men under 18, but not for PrEP to prevent infection.

Researchers designed the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions113 as a phase 2 safety study for adolescent men who have sex with other men age 15 to 17 in the United States.

The study included 78 male participants with an average age of 16 who were recruited from adolescent medicine clinics and community partners in six U.S. cities. All participants had negative HIV test results but were considered at high-risk for infection.

“It’s always difficult to recruit adolescents into any study with all the issues around parental consent,” Hosek said. “In this case, we had to find adolescents at risk for HIV and that’s a smaller group. Adolescents were allowed to consent for themselves because study sites agreed if there were local laws allowing for HIV prevention services and STD prevention services for adolescents without parental consent, then the same would apply.”

Hosek said that many of the study participants had not discussed their sexual orientation to friends or parents, and many identified as bisexual or questioning, not gay.

“Each clinic did recruitment differently, many on social media, Facebook and other sites, community organizations, and gay pride events,” Hosek said. “Social media was the most productive way to find people to recruit by far.”

Generally speaking, adolescent studies follow adult studies in order to gather more data and make sure there aren’t different side effects for younger patients, Hosek said.

Over the 48-week study period, there were 23 sexually transmitted infections diagnosed in 12 participants. Three participants acquired an HIV infection during the study.

Most of the participants had detectable PrEP drug levels throughout the study, with more than 95 percent of participants having detectable levels over the first 12 weeks of treatment with declining levels after.

“Consistent with the development of adolescents, they struggled to take a pill every day,” Hosek said. “They need more support than adults to adhere to taking a pill every day. This is expected in adolescents and for all types of medications. We see this in girls and birth control.”

The study found adolescents taking the PrEP for prevention was safe and effective, and did not increase risky behavior as a result. Adherence was the biggest obstacle the participants faced, researchers reported.


Bacterial Vaginosis-Causes and Prevention

Bacterial Vaginosis-Causes and Prevention

Bacterial vaginosis happens when there is a disturbance in the ratio of the harmful or bad bacteria (anaerobic) and good bacteria (lactobacilli) living in the vagina. Scientists have not yet found the precise bacteria that is the reason of the contamination.

However, they have faith in it that bacterial vaginosis is the result of the combination of various types of the bad (anaerobic) bacteria. Moreover, the pH of your vagina has shifted from the typical acidic condition of 3.5-4.5 to more than 4.5 which is not such an acidic condition.

This pH is a favorable condition for bad bacteria to grow and flourish in the vagina. This infection can happen in any woman, but pregnant ladies and sexually active women are more prone to have this bacterial infection.

Women with bacterial vaginosis have the threat of having sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) like HIV if presented to the infection causing them. Furthermore, ladies with bacterial vaginosis infection have the danger of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID).

Threateningly, bacteria that cause bacterial vaginosis may also affect the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes. So, it is crucial to treat bacterial vaginosis to lessen the threat of STDs and other issues related to the female reproductive system.

Increased number of bad bacteria causes awful side effects like swelling, tingling, paining and burning sensation and release of watery discharge followed by the obnoxious smell in some cases. Itching followed by a burning sensation may likewise happen inside and outside the vaginal region.

Not all ladies with bacterial vaginosis have these side effects. There are some cases that women may not realize that they have bacterial vaginosis because they have do not experience any manifestation or indication at all.

We can diagnose this bacterial infection by various examinations and lab tests. In these lab tests, vaginal discharge is examined to check the balance of good and bad bacteria.

What causes bacterial vaginosis?

An accurate reason for this vaginal condition stays obscure since various kinds of bacteria regularly live in the vagina. Resultantly, deciding why overgrowth of certain bacteria happen is still not clear.

In spite of the fact that the reasons for this condition are still vague, certain elements may expand the danger of building up this condition. Some of these are:

  • Usage of oils in shower

Utilizing oils in your shower is one of the many reasons for bacterial vaginosis. While using shower oils may be a relaxing factor for you, they will not enable you to free from the nasty smell that bacterial vaginosis may cause.

Oils trap microscopic organisms and give an absolute favorable condition to develop and grow. Utilizing a couple of drops of tea tree essential oil may be helpful as it is antiseptic and can relieve the pain and symptoms of the infection.

  • Clothing

Wearing tight garments that trap dampness around your private parts is one of the real reasons for bacterial vaginosis. Harmful microscopic organisms (bacteria and virus) multiply their growth and causing the awful odor and indications.

It ought to be noticed that consistent wearing of tight fitting attire like pants or jeans can add to bacterial vaginosis. If you have precluded all other reasons for bacterial vaginosis, your clothing might be the reason.

  • Medications

Certain medications like antibiotics execute the good bacteria and other microorganisms in your body as well. Remember, if you are taking such medicines for a cough, cold or other illnesses then you must know that the good bacteria in your body, including your vagina, are being executed.

Subsequently, it is putting you in danger of having bacterial vaginosis. Supplementing with probiotics, for example, Lactobacillus can help reestablish your bodies normal flora.

  • Eating routine

Diet assumes a noteworthy part in deciding your body’s pH levels. You could be making an unbalance nursery for bad bacteria that may cause bacterial vaginosis by consuming too much acidic food.

Focus on what you eat and search for foods that are alkaline and certain recipes that advance a decent sound pH level in the body.

  • Ignorant towards proper hygiene

The greatest no-no ladies can do in the toilet is washing and wiping from back to front. It should be to wipe from front to back as to not spread microscopic organisms and germs from the anus to the vagina.

If you are going for cleaning and wiping from back to front, there may be the chances that the fecal remains go into your genital areas. This may result in the increased awful microorganisms which will at last results in unpredictable and convoluted vaginal contamination

  • Vaginal douching

Douching is never at any point a conventional practice. There is no medical advantage to pick up from douching. In truth, it can only be detrimental. Douching strips of the vagina of every single good bacterium same as using antibiotics.

So, freeing your vagina of every single great and beneficial bacterium enables the awful microbes to regroup and take over rapidly. Terribly, douching can push those awful microbes deeper inside your body, causing contamination in womb or uterus.

Preventions that should be taken for bacterial vaginosis

  • Fortifying the immune system

A decent, healthy eating routine can surely help to strengthen the immune system. You must have 5 to 6 portions of veggies and fresh fruits in combination with lean meat, nuts and a lot of beans.

Cut down fats and artificial sweeteners from your diet. Likewise, taking a multivitamin supplement will strengthen your overall body framework.

  • Rebalancing the Imbalance

If you have bacterial vaginosis, the pH level of your vagina will be alkaline. To move this back to somewhat acidic, include some apple cider vinegar to a bath tub and sit in it for approximately 20 minutes.

Adding valuable microscopic organisms directly to the vagina can likewise help as this will duplicate rapidly, in the warm conditions. To do this, absorb a tampon in probiotic yogurt and let it sits on vagina for few hours.

This works since probiotic yogurt is rich in useful and good bacteria. Utilize warm water to clean the outside of your vagina. You don’t have to use a cleanser. Indeed, even mild cleanser can cause contamination or aggravate your vagina.

  • Suitable clothing

Constantly wearing tight apparel can make a greenhouse like condition for harmful bacteria in the vagina. Undergarments made of synthetic material can be the culprit. Instead, wear cotton underwear or cotton lined pants to ensure the proper ventilation to the vagina.

  • No to douching

Douching expels a portion of the ordinary and beneficial microorganisms in the vagina that shield you from the disease. This may raise your danger of bacterial vaginosis. It might be likewise to recur bacterial vaginosis even after treatment. Specialists do not prescribe douching.

  • Practice safe sex

It is one of the most important preventive measures that you can take. Have safe sex. Some of the tips to practice the safe sex are:

  • Use condoms

Condoms are an ideal approach to anticipate bacterial vaginosis or Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) when you have intercourse. Ensure to put on the condom before the penis touches the vagina.

  • One man and one woman show

Engaging in sexual relations with only one accomplice can bring down your hazard for bacterial vaginosis and other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Be reliable to each other. That implies that you just engage in sex with each other and nobody else. […]

What happens to your penis when you get an erection?

What happens to your penis when you get an erection?

Men get an erection in response to stimuli such as – touch, sight, smell or when other senses are at the peak of excitement, usually just before having an intercourse.

During an erection, there is maximum blood flow in the penis that helps a man to attain an erection and maintain it to achieve sexual satisfaction while having intercourse.

However, there are a lot of things that happen in the body before an erection is achieved. To know how it happens, know what the penis comprises of: The longest part of the penis is called the shaft and the head of the penis that is at the end of the shaft is called glans. The opening at the tip of the head from where urine and semen are expelled is called meatus. Inside the penis, there are two columns of tissues called corpus cavernosum that run on the sides along the length of the penis and houses a network of blood vessels and nerves. Corpus spongiosum is another sponge like tissue column with a maze of blood vessels and nerves that runs along the front part of the penis ending at the glans, covering the urethra, which runs through it.

Thereare two main arteries in the corpus cavernosum along with a network of veins. The arteries pump blood to the organ and veins take the blood out of it. The brain sends signals through a network of nerves which helps the penis to get an erection in response to a stimulus.

A stimulus could be either a physical or a mental trigger. So, when a man gets aroused following stimulation, the brain sends signals that make the arteries in the penis open fully. There is more blood entering the arteries and corpus cavernosum. The blood enters at a faster rate than it can exit through the veins. The veins then are compressed and pressure is build-up in the corpus cavernosum. This expands the penis and helps it to maintain and hold an erection. When a man reaches climax, the brain stops to send signals and the inflow of blood to the arteries stop, the veins open and the penis goes back to its flaccid state.

In case, if there is no erection even after a man is aroused or gets an urge to have intercourse the problems could be either physiological or psychological for which it is better to seek medical attention.

Image source: Shutterstock